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Yaghoubi H, Shalchi B, Sheikhi S. The Structural Relationship of Moral Intelligence and Self-Efficacy with Students' Addiction. JPMed 2022; 11 (1) : e21
URL: http://jpmed.ir/article-1-1067-en.html
1- Department of Psychology, Human Science Faculty, Azerbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran
2- Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
3- Department of Psychology, Human Science Faculty, Azerbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran , : SaraSheikhi62@gmail.com
English Extended Abstract:   (1710 Views)
... [1-4]. Before a person starts using drugs, the ground and preparation are created, which is considered as a vulnerability to addiction [5]. Previous studies have identified several factors for substance abuse, including: adverse childhood experiences, insecure attachment patterns [6], personality traits, impulsiveness [2], age and gender [7], quality of life [8], and failure tolerance [9]. ... [10]. One of the structures that is closely related to addiction is self-efficacy. A person with high self-efficacy evaluates obstacles as less imposing, while a person with a low level of self-efficacy may consider even minor obstacles as insurmountable [11]. ... [12, 13]. One of the strongest factors in the tendency to avoid substance use and less need to use in high-risk situations is self-efficacy [2, 10, 14-19]. Another variable whose role in preventing addiction was examined in this study was moral intelligence which means to distinguish between right and wrong and the moral affairs of the world [20]. ... [21]. Studies have shown that there is a significant negative relationship between forgiveness and addiction as well as alcohol consumption [22]. Ethical beliefs also help to internalize the negative aspects of drugs and avoid alcohol and drugs [23].
This study aimed to investigate the relation between the variables of moral intelligence and self-efficacy with students' addiction through structural equation modeling and several factors in interaction with each other were analyzed.
The present study is descriptive-correlational.
All students of the Shahid Madani University of Azerbaijan were the statistical population of this study who were studying in the academic year of 2014-2015. 364 samples were selected by stratified random sampling method based on the Morgan table.
For data collection, questionnaire to identify people at risk of addiction [24], general self-efficacy questionnaire [25, 26], and moral intelligence questionnaire [27, 28] were used. The internal consistency of the items for the whole questionnaire to identify people at risk of addiction through Cronbach's alpha was 0.80 and for the four areas of depression and feelings of helplessness, positive attitude towards drugs, anxiety, and fear of others, and high excitement, were obtained respectively 0.69, 0.78, 0.76 and 0.82. The total Cronbach's alpha of the general self-efficacy questionnaire was 0.71 and for the three areas of desire to initiate behavior, attempt to complete the task, and resistance to obstacles were 0.68, 0.77, and 0.86, respectively. The total Cronbach's alpha of moral intelligence questionnaire was 0.85 and for the four areas of honesty, responsibility, forgiveness, and compassion were 0.71, 0.76, 0.79, and 0.83, respectively. The total Cronbach's alpha of the general self-efficacy questionnaire was 0.71 and for the three areas of desire to initiate behavior, attempt to complete the task, and resistance to obstacles were 0.68, 0.77, and 0.86, respectively. Cronbach's total moral intelligence questionnaire was 0.85 and the four areas of honesty, responsibility, forgiveness, and compassion were respectively, 0.71, 0.76, 0.79, and 0.83.
Participation in this study was completely optional and the researcher was committed to protecting the personal information of the participants. This study has been approved by Azerbaijan Shahid Madani University with the code 19361 / D / 214.
To analyze the data, a path analysis test was used using SPSS 25 software and Lisrel 8.8.
Descriptive findings showed that out of 364 participants in this study, 170 (46.70%) were girls and 194 (53.29%) were boys. The average age of participants was 23 to 33 years; 150 people (41.20%) were studying in the field of psychology, 120 people (32.96%) were studying in the field of educational sciences and 94 people (25.82%) were studying in other fields of humanities. Among the components of addiction, depression with an average of 59.23±17.92 had the highest value and also the component of the correctness of the moral intelligence variable with an average of 56.63±11.78, and the component of desire to initiate behavior from the variable of self-efficacy with an average of 24.66±5.61 ± had the highest value (Table 1). Also, there was a negative relation between the components of self-efficacy as well as moral intelligence and the components of interest and a positive relation between the components of self-efficacy and moral intelligence (Table 2). The results of the fit indices of the output model indicated the average fit of the model (Table 3). Path models briefly showed that self-efficacy (t=-6.44 and g=-0.44) and moral intelligence (t=-7.14 and g=-0.42) were inversely related to addiction (Figure 1).
In this study, as expected, self-efficacy was inversely and significantly related to addiction. Among the dimensions of self-efficacy, the desire to initiate behavior showed the highest correlation with the dimensions of addiction. This result is consistent with the results of Blonigen and Macia [2], Gullo et al. [4], Clyde et al. [14], Ehert, Ghaidarov, and Labrie [17], Rabbani Bavejdan et al. [29] and Chomsri [30]. According to the findings, high self-efficacy in stressful situations is more associated with adaptive coping strategies, such as problem-oriented coping. On the other hand, low self-efficacy is associated with low self-esteem, pessimistic thoughts about oneself, and the ability to function [31, 32]. The relationship between self-efficacy and addiction can also be explained based on Bandura's social learning theory. Bandura argues that those with low social coping skills or low self-efficacy tend to use substances as a coping mechanism [33]. Therefore, it can be said that people with low self-efficacy first use substances as a leeway to avoid problems and gradually become addicted to them. The results of the relation between moral intelligence and addiction also showed that moral intelligence can predict addiction. Among the dimensions of moral intelligence, honesty showed the highest correlation with addiction; therefore, honesty is one of the most important correlations of addiction. These results mean that people with high moral intelligence are less likely to be addicted to drugs. Due to the novelty of the concept of moral intelligence and the lack of research on this phenomenon, it was not possible to compare this finding with the results of other research. But the results of this finding are somewhat in line with the research of Sherer and Maddux [25], that the degree of self-forgiveness and the power of a person to say no can predict the consumption of alcohol, and also with the research of Thompson et al. [33] that forgiveness, predicts four components of psychological well-being (anger, anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction). Wongtongkam et al. [23] consider moral beliefs as protective factors in substance abuse, meaning that moral beliefs help internalize the negative aspects of drugs and avoid alcohol and drugs.
This study naturally faced some limitations; the participants were students of the Shahid Madani State University of Azerbaijan and did not include other students, so the results of this study cannot be generalized to the entire student community of Azerbaijan province and other non-students. On the other hand, this study was conducted in the youth group and is limited in its generalizability to other age groups such as adolescents and middle-aged people. Another limitation of the research is related to data collection tools, which is a kind of self-report, and considering this issue, the validity of the subjects' answers can be questionable.
Mental health screening tests, especially to measure substance dependence and readiness for substance use tendency at the beginning of student entry to university and during the study are recommended. Planning for addiction prevention at university is also necessary, so it is recommended that planning be done to diagnose and treat students who are addicted or prone to addiction. Doing more research on substance use behavior and identifying protective factors can not only facilitate a better understanding of addiction but also provide a basis for predicting and preventing addiction.
The results of the present study showed that there is a negative and inverse relationship between self-efficacy as well as moral intelligence components and addiction and there is a positive and direct relationship between self-efficacy and moral intelligence.
The results of this study can be used to prevent students' addiction and reduce the desire of addicted students in police medical centers and other medical departments of the police headquarters.
All the students of the Shahid Madani University of Azerbaijan and also the management and staff of this university are appreciated and thanked for their sincere cooperation. This article is extracted from the master's thesis entitled the preventive role of moral intelligence, self-efficacy, and resilience in students' addiction.
The authors state that there is no conflict of interest in the present study.
The present study had no financial support.
Table 1) Average scores of the studied indicators in the research (364 people)
Variable Mean Standard
Depression 59.23 17.92
positive attitude towards substance use 27.59 11.56
Anxiety 36.79 9.99
Sensation Seeking 26.37 5.33
Total addiction 150.0 38.45
Honesty 56.63 11.78
responsibility 42.23 7.72
Forgiveness 28.39 5.87
Compassion 14.28 3.16
Total moral intelligence 141.54 25.97
Desire to start 24.66 5.61
Trying to complete the task 23.8 3.93
Resistance to obstacles 10.37 1.95
Total self-efficacy 58.86 9.83

Table 2) Matrix of correlation coefficients between the components of moral intelligence, self-efficacy and addiction
Variables 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
1. Depression, and feelings of helplessness 1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
2. positive attitude towards substance use 0.58 1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
3. Anxiety and fear of others 0.84 0.53 1 - - - - - - - - - - -
4. High excitement 0.57 0.44 0.56 1 - - - - - - - - - -
5. Addiction 0.94 0.77 0.89 0.68 1 - - - - - - - - -
6. Desire to initiate behavior -0.54 -0.43 -0.47 -0.30 -0.55 1 - - - - - - - -
7. Trying to complete the task -0.36 -0.28 -0.25 -0.16 -0.34 0.60 1 - - - - - - -
8. Resistance to obstacles -0.51 -0.35 -0.43 -0.25 -0.49 0.53 0.41 1 - - - - - -
9. Self-efficacy -0.56 -0.43 -0.46 -0.29 -0.55 0.92 0.83 0.67 1 - - - -
10. Correction -0.46 -0.62 -0.37 -0.29 -0.54 0.47 0.34 0.39 0.48 1 - - -
11. Responsibility -0.32 -0.45 -0.26 -0.22 -0.39 0.38 0.26 0.32 0.39 0.80 1 - - -
12.Forgiveness -0.38 -0.52 -0.32 -0.26 -0.46 0.41 0.28 0.31 0.40 0.75 0.72 1 - -
13. Compassion -.27 -0.44 -0.19 0.12 -0.32 0.28 0.25 0.25 0.31 0.68 0.76 0.69 1 -
14. Moral intelligence -0.43 -0.59 -0.34 -0.27 -0.50 0.45 0.32 0.37 0.46 0.94 0.91 0.86 0.81 1

Table 3) Fitness indices of the model presented in the research
Index X2 df X2/df GFI AGFI CFI RMSEA Standardized RMR
Output model 77.02 - 2.33 0.96 0.92 0.99 0.06 0.04

Figure 1) The structural model between self-efficacy and moral intelligence with addiction

Article number: e21
Full-Text [PDF 708 kb]   (865 Downloads)    
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Addiction & Substance Abuse
Received: 2021/12/18 | Accepted: 2022/04/18 | Published: 2022/05/18

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