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shirmohamadzade M, ghorbanzadeh B, gorbanian B, saberi Y. Examining the Musculoskeletal Condition and Physical Fitness Related to the Health of Physical Protection Personnel. J Police Med 2022; 11 (1) : e34
URL: http://jpmed.ir/article-1-1106-en.html
1- Department of Sports Science, Faculty of Educational Sciences & Psychology, Shahid Madani University of Azerbaijan, Tabriz, Iran
2- Department of Sports Science, Faculty of Educational Sciences & Psychology, Shahid Madani University of Azerbaijan, Tabriz, Iran , behrouzghorbanzadeh@hotmail.com
English Extended Abstract:   (981 Views)
Musculoskeletal disorders are considered among the most common and costly work-related problems in all countries [1]. ... [2, 3]. About 60 to 90 percent of older people have had back pain problems for some time, and about 15 to 20 percent of compensations received by people are due to these problems [4]. Azizpour et al. reported the highest prevalence of back pain, 54.2%, in Iran at the age of 15-50 years [5]. The existence of musculoskeletal disorders can affect the level of physical fitness of physical security personnel [6]. Also, proper physical fitness is the most basic need of the security forces and is one of the essential factors determining these people's performance. The low level of physical fitness of workers in this profession can have security consequences [7].
On the other hand, physical security workers complain of the spinal, knee, and back pain, mainly caused by a lack of proper health status and musculoskeletal disorders [8]. Also, during the studies conducted in this field, no specific solutions have been provided to resolve musculoskeletal disorders and improve physical fitness indicators [9, 10]. The first step to improve a physical security group's physical fitness and health is to evaluate the existing situation to reduce the cases of musculoskeletal disorders and also to know about their physical fitness indicators.
The present study was conducted to examine the musculoskeletal condition and physical fitness related to health of the physical security personnel in one of the medical centers.
The present study is descriptive-survey type.
All male physical security personnel at the Shahid Madani University of Azarbaijan, Iran, in December 2021 constituted the statistical population of this study.
The samples were selected by census sampling with 30 people.
A checklist was used to collect data. First, the samples' age, heights, and weights were recorded. Height was measured with an accuracy of 0.1 cm and weight with an accuracy of 0.1 kg. Anthropometric measurement was evaluated using the body composition analysis device (Body Composition) 220 body model made in South Korea (Figure 1). This device measures total body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) as based on body mass index, less than 20 is thin, 20 to 25 standard, 25 to 30 overweight, and more than 30 are considered obese [11]. Also, based on the waist to hip circumference, if this index in men is higher than 0.9, it is a risk factor for health [11]. The setting and reaching test was used to evaluate flexibility [12]. Muscular strength was measured using the Sargent jump [13]. Cardiorespiratory fitness (maximum oxygen consumption) was measured using the modified Bruce test on the Cosmos treadmill made in Germany (Figure 2). This protocol is designed in 9 stages, and each stage consists of 3 minutes, in which the slope and speed in the first stage start from 0% and 2.7 km per hour, respectively, and in the 9th stage, it reaches 22% and 9.6 km per hour. The details are written in Table 1. The following formula obtained Vo2max values [14]—
maximum oxygen consumption=test time × 2.282 +8.545.
The New York test was used to evaluate musculoskeletal conditions. This test was reported by Johnson and Nelson (1986) with validity and reliability coefficients of 0.93 and 0.98 [15].
After the approval of the project in Shahid Madani University of Azerbaijan with the research code 35646/D/227, all research objectives were explained for the samples and all the measurements for each person were done in one day in the Sports Physiology Laboratory of Shahid Madani University of Azerbaijan by a trained expert of this laboratory. There was no cost for the studied samples and all the devices and laboratory equipment used belonged to the administration and sports science department of Shahid Madani University of Azerbaijan.
Written consent was received from all the subjects and the results of the tests were given to the individual in the form of an individual report.
The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to check the normality of the data. Also, one-sample t-test was used to compare the average of the studied indicators as well as the average with normal values. All studies were analyzed using SPSS 20 software at a significance level of p<0.05.
The descriptive findings of the present study showed that the average age of the participants was 45.76±5.69. The frequency of musculoskeletal disorders in the physical security personnel of the investigated center is in Table 2. According to the findings, lumbar disc disorder, drooped shoulder, and lordosis were the most common disorders, respectively. There were two people without disorders, five people with one disorder, eight people with two disorders, eight people with three disorders, four people with four disorders, one with five disorders, and two with six musculoskeletal disorders. Table 3 shows the findings related to physical fitness related health using a one-sample t-test. Based on the findings, it was found that the percentage of body fat, body mass index, and a waist-to-hip ratio of 73.3% of the studied subjects were in the high and dangerous range and had a significant difference from normal values (p<0.001). Also, the average cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, and muscle strength of physical security workers were lower than normal (p<0.001).
The results of musculoskeletal abnormalities were in line with the results of the study of Piri et al., which investigated the prevalence of postural abnormalities and musculoskeletal disorders in the ship's staff. Abnormality in hyperlordosis and disorder in the lumbar is the most postural abnormalities and musculoskeletal disorders observed among the ship's staff. In the present study, droopy shoulder and lumbar lordosis were among the most common abnormalities among physical security personnel. In addition, the results of the present study were in line with the results of Rahimi et al. [17], Shahrjerdi et al. [18], Doosti et al. [19], Hasani et al. [20] and Beyranvand et al. [21]. These people have concluded in their studies that musculoskeletal abnormalities are common in different classes of society. Therefore, extensive planning should be done to provide corrective exercises and necessary awareness on how to properly perform daily and work activities to prevent the occurrence of musculoskeletal abnormalities that disrupt the activity level of employees and different layers of society and endanger the health of these people in the long term. ... [22]. It can be stated that the physical security personnel have suffered from musculoskeletal abnormalities due to the constant repetition of wrong movements of sitting or standing for a long time, the most common of which are drooping shoulders and lumbar lordosis, which necessary awareness and required corrective exercises should be applied to these people as soon as possible. Also, the results of the current study in the physical fitness section showed that the body fat percentage, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio of physical security personnel are in the high and dangerous range and have a significant difference from the normal values of these indicators. The results of the present study are in line with the results of the studies of Tejari et al. [23], Mohebi et al. [24], Salianeh et al. [25], and Kermani et al. [26]. The results of these studies have shown that the physical fitness of personnel in different areas of society is weak. One of the reasons is the lack of sports programs for employees, which causes inactivity in these people and, as a result, causes the weakness of various indicators of physical fitness. ... [27-29].
The development of sports programs for personnel is necessary, as the development of physical fitness and sports programs will improve the physical health index of these people. As a result, we will see active and energetic personnel. Also, measuring other health indicators in the blood, including the lipid profile (as a limitation of the present study), has very effective and accurate results in work because lipid profile indicators are used as essential factors for health diagnosis and directly affect other factors of physical fitness, including cardiorespiratory fitness.
The present study showed that body fat percentage, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio of physical protection workers are high and dangerous. Also, other indicators of physical fitness related to health showed that cardiorespiratory fitness (maximum oxygen consumption), flexibility, and muscle power of physical security workers are lower than normal values. In addition, the personnel have droopy shoulder syndrome, lumbar disorder, scoliosis, varum knee, torticollis, lordosis, humpbacked and flat feet. It seems that it is necessary to formulate physical fitness training programs as well as corrective movement exercises and in addition to inform employees about their physical health status.
This article is taken from the monitoring plan of physical security personnel of the Shahid Madani University of Azerbaijan. Thanks to all the people who helped in this research.
The authors state that the present study has no conflict of interest.
The present study was carried out with the financial support of the Research Directorate of the Shahid Madani University of Azerbaijan.

Figure 1) Measurement of anthropometric factors using a body composition analysis device

Figure 2) Treadmill modified Bruce test

Table 1) Modified Bruce test
Level Slope in percent Speed in kilometers per hour
1 0 2.7
2 5 2.7
3 10 2.7
4 12 4
5 14 5.5
6 16 6.8
7 18 8
8 20 8.8
9 22 9.6

Table 2) The frequency of musculoskeletal disorders in the studied physical security personnel
Type of disorder Percent(number)
lumbar 73.3(n=22)
Droopy shoulders 66.6(n=20)
lordosis 43.3(n=15)
humpbacked 36.6(n=11)
Scoliosis 30(n=9)
Torticollis 23.3(n=7)
Bracke Genu Varum t knee 16.6(n=5)
flat feet 10(n=3)

Table 3) Comparison of descriptive characteristics and t-test results of some indicators of physical fitness
Variable Mean Standard deviation t p
Age 45.76 5.69 - -
Body fat percentage (percent) 43.24 7.22 18.53 0.001*
Maximum oxygen (ml/kg/body weight) 25.75 4.77 29.03 0.001*
BMI 28.62 4.17 37.55 0.001*
Waist to hip ratio 0.96 0.05 101.56 0.00*
power 14.86 6.15 13.01 0.001*
flexibility 15.86 6.60 13.16 0.001*
*significant difference at the significance level of p<0.05 with one-sample t test

Article number: e34
Full-Text [PDF 1102 kb]   (1997 Downloads)    
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Police Related Trauma
Received: 2022/06/21 | Accepted: 2022/08/23 | Published: 2022/10/25

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