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Habibzadeh T, Hashemi T, Rezayi A. The Effectiveness of Meditation Training on Psychological Well-Being, Emotion Regulation and Sleep Quality of Prisoners Addicted to Industrial Drug Abuse. J Police Med 2022; 11 (1) : e37
URL: http://jpmed.ir/article-1-1124-en.html
1- Department of Psychology, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
2- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran , tourajhashemi@yahoo.com
3- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Tabriz Branch, Payam Noor University, Tabriz, Iran
English Extended Abstract:   (1392 Views)
One of the most important social harms is drug abuse [1]. Substance abuse is any kind of involvement and dependence on a stimulus that is pleasant to the mind despite its adverse effects [2]. The psychological well-being approach examines the growth and transformation observed against the existential challenges of life and strongly emphasizes human development and establishing quality relationships with others [3]. The research literature shows that drug addicts [4] and people referring to addiction treatment centres [5] have a low psychological well-being score and 90% of addicts, in addition to the problem of substance dependence, have psychiatric disorders associated with addiction [6] which shows the need to investigate effective methods to reduce these disorders, but researchers do not consider not having a disease to feel healthy, rather they believe that having a feeling of health is not enough and having a feeling of satisfaction with life and positive progress in it is one of the characteristics of a healthy person [7]. One of the components influencing the psychological well-being of people is emotional regulation [8]. The research literature also confirms the relationship between psychological well-being and emotion control strategies [9]. ... [10]. The results of Esmaili Nasab et al.'s research [11] show that the difficulty in emotion regulation and its components predict 37.5% of addiction [12] and research shows that people with substance abuse often report problems in emotion regulation compared to normal people [13] and the use of industrial drugs has an effect on mental well-being and excitement or avoiding negative emotions [14]. ... [15]. On the other hand, one of the factors affecting the control of emotions is the quality of sleep [16]. Research findings [17] have also shown the role of substance abuse in reducing sleep quality. People who are addicted to drugs and alcohol, have their sleep structure and needs change and they experience sleep deprivation and have less sleep than normal and experience less sleep quality [18]. ... [19, 20]. So far, various methods have been proposed to increase mental well-being, sleep quality, and emotion regulation, among which the most important non-pharmacological methods are meditation therapy. Meditation therapy as a psychotherapy method that is closely related to spirituality can have an effective role in the psychological variables of people. ... [21, 22]. The results of Lee's research [20] show that meditation therapy affects mental health. Rippentrop et al. [22] found in research that meditation has a positive effect on physical and mental well-being and optimism and hope for the future. Therefore, since drug abuse has psychological effects and in our country, addicted people are considered a patient, the use of non-drug treatment methods can have positive psychological consequences for these people [23].
Therefore, the present study investigated the effectiveness of meditation training on psychological well-being, emotion regulation and sleep quality of prisoners suffering from industrial drug abuse.
The current study is a semi-experimental type that used a pre-test-post-test design with a control group.
The statistical population included all industrial drug addicts of West Azerbaijan Vocational Training and Occupational Therapy Camp in 2022 (920 people).
30 people were selected based on the entry and exit criteria and available sampling method and were randomly replaced into two groups of 15 people.
To measure the variables from the emotion regulation questionnaire [24] (with a retest coefficient of 0.61 to 0.81 [25] and Cronbach's alpha 0.86), Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales [26, 27] (with Cronbach's alpha 0.79) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [28] were used (with a validity of 0.86 [29] and a reliability of 0.81).
People were randomly divided into two experimental (15 people) and control (15 people) groups. Before implementing the plan, both groups were asked to participate in psychological well-being, emotion regulation and sleep quality tests (pre-test). Then the experimental group received meditation therapy and no intervention was done in the control group. To teach meditation, the meditation instruction manual of Lotfi KashaniMofid and Sarfaraz Mehr [30] was used. This educational package is based on the opinions of experts. Also, to fully ensure the appropriateness of the content of the treatment training package, a pilot group of 5 people was voluntarily and intensively trained, and after reviewing the results of the pilot study and fixing the observed deficiencies, it was prepared for the final implementation. Lotfi KashaniMofid and Sarfaraz Mehr [30] have designed six one-hour sessions for meditation training, but since the present study had a pre-test and a post-test and a separate session was needed for each of these tests, the training package was increased to 8 sessions (Table 1).
Participation in this research was completely voluntary and the researcher is committed to maintaining the personal information of the participants.
To investigate the effectiveness of meditation training on psychological well-being, emotion regulation and sleep quality, univariate covariance analysis was used with SPSS 26 software.
Descriptive findings showed that the average age of the experimental group was 39.23±6.04 years and the control group was 42.4±7.59 years. There was no significant relationship between the two groups in terms of age (p=0.125). Also, the average emotion regulation, psychological well-being and sleep quality were determined in both groups (Table 2). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to check the normality of the data and the results showed that the significance level for each pre-test and post-test stage in both experimental and control groups and for all three research variables was greater than 0.05, therefore, the normality of data distribution was confirmed. Also, Levene’s test was used to check the condition of equality of variances and the results showed that the level of significance for all three research variables including psychological well-being (p=0.07), emotion regulation (p=0.63) and sleep quality (0.62) =p) was greater than 0.05. Therefore, the variances of the dependent variables of the two groups were not significantly different from each other, and the condition of equality of variances was confirmed. Box's M test was also used to check the condition of equality of covariances and the results showed that there was no significant difference between the covariances of the two groups and the condition of equality of covariances was also confirmed in the data (F=1.20; p=0.32). The absence of a linear relationship between the variables before the implementation of the project was also checked and confirmed (variables of psychological well-being (F= 3.07; p= 0.06), emotion regulation (F= 2.41; p= 0.11) and sleep quality (F=3.31; p=0.19). Therefore, the assumptions required to run the analysis of covariance were confirmed. In examining the effect of meditation training on the psychological well-being variable, the results of the post-test intergroup effects test with the reduction of the pre-test effect in Table 3 showed that there was a significant difference between the averages of the two experimental and control groups in the psychological well-being variable (p<0.05). Also, the value of the eta coefficient was 0.162; Therefore, meditation training was effective in improving the psychological well-being of prisoners by 16.2% (Table 3). Also, in examining the effect of meditation training on emotion regulation, the results of the post-test between-group effects test with the reduction of the pre-test effect showed that there was a significant difference between the averages of the two experimental and control groups in the emotion regulation variable (p<0.05). Also, the value of the eta coefficient was 0.129; therefore, meditation training was 12.9% effective in improving the emotional regulation of prisoners (Table 4). Also, in examining the effect of meditation training on sleep quality, the results of the post-test between-group effects test with the reduction of the pre-test effect showed that there was a significant difference between the averages of the two experimental and control groups (p<0.05). Also, the value of the eta coefficient was 0.150; therefore, meditation training was 15% effective in improving the sleep quality of prisoners (Table 5).
The findings of the research showed that meditation training increased the mental well-being of prisoners suffering from industrial drug abuse. The findings of the present study are in line with the results of Karimi et al. [31], Lee et al. [20], Paul, Elam and Verhulst [21] and Rippentrop [22]. Also, the findings of the research showed that meditation training had a positive effect on increasing the emotional regulation of prisoners suffering from industrial drug abuse. This result is consistent with the findings of Álvarez-Pérez et al. [33], Rao et al. [34], as well as the study of Kiani and Hadian Fard [35] ... [36]. Finally, the findings of the research showed that meditation training had a positive effect on increasing the quality of sleep of prisoners suffering from industrial drug abuse. This result is in line with the findings of the study of Ranjbar Sudjani et al. [37] and the study of Ebrahimi, Guilan-Nejad and Pordanjani [38]. In the explanation of the present research, it can be said that focused attention on the present moment causes the processing of all aspects of experience without mediation, including cognitive, physiological or behavioural activities. Through practice and techniques based on meditation, a person becomes aware of his daily activities, becomes aware of the automatic functioning of the mind in the past and future world, and gains control over them through moment-to-moment awareness of thoughts, feelings, and physical states. In this case, the person is released from the daily and automatic mind focused on the past and the future, and this improves the quality of sleep. Also, meditation leads to changes in sleep quality by reducing muscle tension [39].
Conducting more research on the effectiveness of meditation training in other communities, such as youth in drug addiction treatment centres, can provide a basis for treating addiction with new methods, in addition to facilitating a better understanding of the psychological characteristics of addicted people.
The participants of this study were the prisoners of West Azerbaijan Vocational Training and Occupational Therapy Camp and did not include other societies, therefore, caution should be taken in generalizing the research results to the whole society and others. The other limitation of the research was related to the type of data collection tool, which was a kind of self-report tool. Also, many prisoners did not want to participate in the research, and therefore difficult access to the statistical sample and the special conditions of the country in the conditions of the outbreak of Covid-19 were also other limitations.
The findings of the research showed that meditation training increases sleep quality, psychological well-being and cognitive regulation of emotions of prisoners suffering from industrial drug abuse. Considering the significant effect of the meditation training method on increasing psychological well-being, and emotional regulation and improving the quality of sleep of people addicted to industrial drugs, this method can be used as a treatment method to reduce the problems of these people in prisons and addiction treatment centres.
Clinical & Practical Tips in Police Medicine
The results of this research can be used in the non-pharmacological treatment of industrial drug addicts and help the treatment departments of the police.
This article is the result of Tohidi Habibzadeh's doctoral dissertation in 2022, which was carried out with the support of the Islamic Azad University of Tabriz. All the people participating in the research and the management of the West Azerbaijan Vocational Training and Occupational Therapy Camp and the meditation training instructor are sincerely appreciated and thanked for their cooperation.
Conflict of Interest
The authors state that there is no conflict of interest in the present study
Funding Sources
The present study did not have any financial support

Table 1) Meditation training sessions [33]
Meeting Aim
First The first meeting was held with the purpose of getting to know each other and setting goals and agreeing on the day and time of the meetings and commitment to confidentiality, explaining the general purpose and content of the training package, and the pre-test was conducted.
Second The second session was taught about the awareness of the implicit and personal meaning of spirituality and its definition from the point of view of each member, the examination of the existence of belief in a superior and holy force in the members.
Third In the third session, self-observation and explanation of meditation were done and homework was given to the subjects.
Fourth The fourth session was explained about people's experiences of meditation and focusing on a specific topic, and then the effects of meditation were examined.
the fifth In the fifth session, the concept of infinity was explained to people, and then the connection to the Lysol force was explained and taught to them.
the sixth In the sixth session, the concept of forgiveness was explained to people in the experimental group, and then people expressed their personal experiences of forgiveness.
the seventh In the seventh session, the experience of positive changes caused by spirituality and giving meaning to difficult experiences was explained to them.
Eighth In the eighth and last session, the subjects were praised and thanked, and the post-test was performed.

Table 2) Descriptive information related to the research
variables in the control and experimental groups
Variables the level (M±SD) Mean
Control the experiment
Excitement regulation pre-exam 112.26±5.28 107.28 ± 8.72
post-test 108.60±8.57 112.02 ± 9.88
Psychological well-being pre-exam 94.20±3.89 07/03±80/95
post-test 93.13±5.38 99.45±7.63
sleep quality pre-exam 21.40±2.82 20.45±3.22
post-test 22.93±3.01 36.25±4.36

Table 3) The results of univariate covariance analysis of the effect of meditation training
on the sleep quality of prisoners suffering from industrial drug abuse
Indicator Total squares df mean square f p Eta coefficient
Modified model 49.08 2 23.02 5.09 0.019 0.221
pre-exam 8.71 1 8.71 2.56 0.040 0.083
group 32.40 1 32.40 4.04 0.039 0.162
error 111.88 27 5.05  
Total 228.17 30  

Table 4) The results of univariate covariance analysis of the effect of meditation
training on emotional regulation of prisoners suffering from industrial drug abuse
        Indicator Total squares df mean square f p Eta coefficient
Modified model 36.29 2 22.09 4.60 0.003 0.214
pre-exam 7.36 1 7.36 2.15 0.029 0.05
group 29.05 1 29.05 3.18 0.048 0.129
error 60.35 27 6.31  
Total 331.51 30  

Table 5) The results of univariate covariance analysis of the effect of meditation
training on the sleep quality of prisoners suffering from industrial drug abuse
Indicator Total squares df mean square f p Eta coefficient
Modified model 55.258 2 29.666 5.204 0.035 0.235
pre-exam 8.336 1 8.336 2.007 0.125 0.038
group 17.578 1 17.578 4.149 0.042 0.150
error 117.003 27 6.983  
Total 3015 30  

Article number: e37
Full-Text [PDF 705 kb]   (1352 Downloads)    
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Police Related Psychology
Received: 2022/08/29 | Accepted: 2022/10/22 | Published: 2022/11/26

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