Volume 11, Issue 1 (2022)                   J Police Med 2022, 11(1) | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Yassini L, Kiani G, Mojtabazadeh M. Effectiveness of Communication Skills Training for Social Adaptation and Responsibility of Bully Girl Students in Karaj. J Police Med 2022; 11 (1) : e27
URL: http://jpmed.ir/article-1-1087-en.html
1- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities & Arts, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran
2- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities & Arts, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran , kherad739@yahoo.com
3- Department of Administrative Sciences & Management, Faculty of Humanities, Khodabandeh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khodabandeh, Iran
English Extended Abstract:   (1436 Views)
Bullying is considered a serious issue in the school environment, especially if it occurs frequently. [1]; because it causes psychological and academic problems in school [2]. ... [3]. Research conducted among school students in more than 40 countries has shown that the rate of bullying varies between countries and ranges from 8 to 45 percent among boys and from 4.8 to 35.8 percent among girls. The rate of bullying among ninth-grade students in Brazil increased from 4.5% in 2009 to 7.2% in 2012 and 7.4% in 2015, and its prevalence was similar in both sexes [4]. To overcome or reduce bullying, several school-based interventions are being designed and implemented around the world [5]. Since the nature of the bullying construct is a constructive inability to interact with peers, it seems that an intervention program such as communication skills can also be used to have a positive effect in reducing bullying [6]. ... [7, 8]. Research has shown that communication skills training has an impact on self-confidence and empathy [9] and the amount of self-evaluation [10]. Kerr et al. [11] in a meta-analytic review regarding the effectiveness of communication skills to improve nurses' communication with patients from 1998 to 2018, published in English in databases (Medline, Cinahl, Embase, Psychinfo Cochrane), identified 7811 articles that the results of the surveys show a significant increase in the skills of nurses after receiving communication skills training. One of the goals of teaching communication skills is to increase the ability of social adjustment of learners in the social context, especially in the educational environment [12]. ... [13-18]. Researchers have shown that teaching communication skills significantly improves school adjustment and increase responsibility among students [19-21]. ... [22]. Ahmadi et al. have found that low adjustment and lack of responsibility of learners in interacting with school and society are caused by weak communication skills [23]. Researchers believe that the best way to increase the adjustment of adolescents and the responsibility of bullies is to strengthen their communication skills. As a result, social adjustment and responsibility have a close relationship with the ability of communication skills [21].
Considering the importance of community-oriented interventions in the field of bullying and its consequences, and the lack of research in the field of educational interventions on social adjustment and responsibility, the main issue in this research was to investigate the effectiveness of communication skills training in the social adjustment and responsibility of bullying female students in Karaj.
The current research is an experimental type with a pre-test-post-test design with a control group.
The statistical population of the research was all bullied female students in the 10th grade of district 2 of Karaj, Iran in the academic year of 2020-2021. The statistical sample was selected from public school students.
First, six secondary schools of district 2 of Karaj city were randomly visited. Students with a history of bullying in these schools were identified by the executive staff and teachers of the schools. After identifying these people and implementing the school bullying questionnaire and social adjustment and responsibility questionnaires, 30 of them who had the highest score in the bullying questionnaire and a low score in the California responsibility and social adjustment questionnaire of Sinha and Singh (97 people), were selected as samples. These people were selected based on their age, educational and family status, and pre-test scores, and then they were randomly replaced in the two experimental and control groups (15 people each group) [25].
The Olweus School Bullying Questionnaire (R-VQ/OB) [24-27], Sinha and Singh Social Adjustment [25, 28], and California Responsiveness (1987) [29-31] were used to collect data.
To conduct the study, communication skills were taught in the experimental group, but no educational intervention was done in the control group. Two weeks after the end of the training, social adjustment and responsibility questionnaires were performed as a post-test. It should be noted that the sample people in both groups were matched in terms of educational level, major, and grade. In the present study, the educational package of communication skills (Ahmadi et al.) was used [32]. The validity of this protocol was confirmed by the creators as well as two expert professors. Experimental interventions were implemented for the experimental group during 10 sessions as a group in one of the high school classes that were determined by school administrators and counselors. Two sessions were held every week for 60 minutes. In this research, the students were not just listeners and interacted with the researcher during the sessions (Table 1).
This project was approved by the Research Council of Payame Noor University with the code of IR.IAU.Z.REC.1399.68.
The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 23 software and using covariance analysis. A significance level of 0.05 was considered.
The age of the studied samples in the experimental and control groups was between 16 and 18 years, which was recorded separately in Table 2. The result of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for all variables was greater than 0.05, which indicated the normal distribution of the data in the variables. Also, according to the Box’s M test, the equality of the covariance matrix of the dependent variables was not significant between the experimental and control groups (p>0.05). The results of Levin's test to check the homogeneity of error variances of the variables in the research groups were not significant for the variables of social adjustment acceptance and responsibility (p>0.05). In other words, the error variances of these variables were homogeneous in the groups. The results of Wilks Lambda test showed that there was a significant difference in at least one of the dependent variables in the studied groups in the post-test phase (p<0.001). Also, the regression slope homogeneity equation was not significant (p>0.05). Therefore, it can be said that the assumption of regression homogeneity was maintained in all variables; so, the use of covariance analysis was confirmed. The value of Wilks Lambda was close to zero (this value is between zero and one), which indicates the difference in the average of the groups from each other, and its significance level was less than 0.05 (Table 3). The average post-test score of the experimental group in the variable of social adjustment was 16.20±2.18 and of responsibility was 25.13±3.81 compared to the pre-test (11.87±2.07 and 13.60±2.99, respectively) (Table 4). The results of covariance analysis showed that the value of the F statistic, which shows the effect of the independent variable (group), was significant with a value of 40.403, so there was a significant statistical difference between the two groups (Table 5). The results of univariate covariance analysis (p<0.001; F=66.980; Eta=0.713) showed that communication skills training increased the responsibility score in the post-test of the experimental group and was able to explain 75% of the variance of the dependent variable.
Teaching communication skills were effective in students' social adjustment; this finding was consistent with the results of Shariat [19], BavzinSepahvandi and Ghazanfari [20], Rabbani [21], Bahadori and Habibi [33]. In explaining this finding, it can be said that since the educational protocol of communication skills consists of three components of managing emotions and feelings, perception of others, and self-expression, by preventing and increasing the power of adjusting to others and increasing the threshold of tolerance, it leads to the improvement of reflective problem-solving style and decrease impulsive and bullying behaviors which directly lead to reducing interpersonal problems and improving students' social adjustment. ... [34]. Learning skills such as how to interpret body language as well as ways of using this part of non-verbal communication, using appropriate ways of self-expression, and problem-solving skills make students able to recognize the state and negative physical and emotional signs of anger and internal and external factors and finally use alternatives to bullying, instead of suppressing or losing temper. [34]. Also, teaching communication skills were effective in social adjustment. The result of this hypothesis was consistent with the research results of Shariat and Ahmadi et al [19, 23]. ... [35]. Students who have excellent communication skills show more adaptive behaviors, and are more popular and accepted among their peers; as a result, with the encouragement and feedback they experience from people, they have a positive self-evaluation of themselves and feel responsible for every commitment and promise they make and try their best to fulfill their promises; therefore, they have high responsibility [36].
The limitations of the age group (female students 14 and 15 years old), geographical (Karaj city), and the lack of control of influencing factors (economic and social base, intelligence) were among the limitations of this research.
It is suggested to pay special attention to the teaching of communication skills in the compilation of students' textbooks and to include intervention programs with the content of communication skills at the high priority of educational lessons and life skills in schools. Also, for future research, it is suggested to investigate more closely the effectiveness of teaching social communication skills on the responsibility and adjustment of learners by increasing the training sessions and holding the follow-up period.
Teaching communication skills affects the social adjustment and responsibility of bullying Karaj female students. Therefore, to increase their social adjustment and responsibility, it is necessary for schools, families, educational institutions and organizations, and even military institutions to be aware of the importance and role of communication skills and to be encouraged to use this skill to promote the adjustment and responsibility of learners.
Based on the results of the present study, by teaching communication skills, psychologists and counselors of health and treatment centers, education, and even military institutions such as police headquarter can improve students or even soldiers’ healthy communication relationships and emotional expression, their invulnerability to bullying, social adjustment as well as their responsibility so that a step can be taken to reduce social crimes in the society.
This research is extracted from the Ph.D. thesis of the first author of the article. We sincerely thank all those who have helped us in some way in conducting this research.
The authors state that there is no conflict of interest in the present study.
The financial credit of this research was provided by the researcher.

Table 1) Summary of sessions of communication skills training package by Ahmadi et al. (2012)
Meeting Subject brief description
1 Introducing the researcher and the students and explaining the purpose of the research Familiarizing the students and the researcher with each other, stating the rules and expectations (such as cooperation, attending on time, etc.) and stating the purpose of the research, conducting and implementing the pre-test
2 Explanation of communication skills Preparation and termination of useful communication, barriers to effective communication, description of the communication model
3 Explaining the types of communication methods (verbal and non-verbal) Non-verbal language and its interpretation, physical characteristics and environmental factors in non-verbal communication
4 Listening skills Types of listening, barriers to listening, mastering listening skills during relationships
5 Types of empathy methods Reflecting feelings and meanings, empathy and giving a firm but flexible answers
6 The skill of saying "no". Types of self-expression, its benefits and functions, the way to communicate in society, saying "no"
7 Explanation of self-expression Six stages of self-expression, power cultivation
8 Explain the nature of the conflict Conflict and its types, methods of preventing and controlling personal and group conflicts
9 Explaining the solution to the problem Participatory problem solving method and its application and problem- solving process methods
10 Summarizing and reviewing the contents of all sessions and conducting the post-exam Honesty, empathy and love, design and implementation of a letter of commitment to apply communication skills and answer students' doubts regarding the content of the treatment protocol, implementation of the post-exam

Table 2) Age frequency distribution of sample members
Group 16 years old 17 years old 18 years old Total
Test Number 6 5 4 15
Percentage 40.00 33.34 26.66 100
Control Number 7 5 3 15
Percentage 46.66 33.34 20.00 100

Table 3) Multivariate covariance table (MANCOVA)
 to check the indicators before and after the intervention
Indicator Amount The F amount DF hypothesis Error DF P
Pillai effect 0.538 6.875 6.000 112.000 0.001
Wilks Lambda 0.463 8.624 6.000 110.000 0.001
Hotelling's work 1.160 10.441 6.000 108.000 0.001
Roy's Largest Root 1.158 21.625 3.000 56.000 0.001

Table 4) Average research variables
independent variable Group Dependent variable pre-test Post test
Mean standard deviation Mean standard deviation
Communication skills experiment Social adjustment 11.87 2.07 16.20 2.18
Control 12.27 2.05 11.67 2.06
experiment Responsibility
13.60 2.99 25.13 3.81
Control 14.20 3.84 14.07 3.22

Table 5) The results of univariate covariance analysis to determine the effectiveness
of communication skills training in the social adjustment of bully female students.
Source of changes SS df MS F p-value Eta
Constant 186.886 1 186.886 40.403 0.001 0.599
pre-test 0.443 1 0.443 0.096 0.759 0.004
intervention 116.461 1 116.461 25.178 0.001 0.483
error 124.890 27 4.626 - - -
Total 6319 30 - - - -

Table 6) The results of univariate covariance analysis to determine the effectiveness
of communication skills training in the responsibility of bully female students.
Source of changes SS df MS F p-value Eta
Constant 284.747 1 284.747 20.738 0.001 0.434
pre-test 37.409 1 37.409 2.725 0.110 0.092
intervention 919.666 1 919.666 66.980 0.001 0.713
error 370.724 27 13.731 - - -
Total 12908 30 - - - -

Article number: e27
Full-Text [PDF 716 kb]   (939 Downloads)    
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Police Related Psychology
Received: 2022/03/14 | Accepted: 2022/07/16 | Published: 2022/08/6

1. Bondü R, Rothmund T, Gollwitzer M. Mutual long-term effects of school bullying, victimization, and justice sensitivity in adolescents. J Adolesc. 2016;48:62-72. [DOI:10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.01.007] [PMID]
2. Avşar F, Ayaz Alkaya S. The effectiveness of assertiveness training for school-aged children on bullying and assertiveness level. J Pediatr Nurs. 2017;36: 186-90. [DOI:10.1016/j.pedn.2017.06.020] [PMID]
3. Jomar T.R, Fonseca V.A, Ramos de O. Effects of sexual orientation-based bullying on feelings of loneliness and sleeping difficulty among Brazilian middle school students. J Pediatr. [DOI:10.1016/j.jped.2020.03.005] [PMID]
4. Mello FC, Malta DC, Santos MG, Silva MM, Silva MA. Evolution of the report of suffering bullying among Brazilian schoolchil-dren: national school health survey 2009 to 2015. Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2018;21:e180015.3. [DOI:10.1590/1980-549720180015.supl.1] [PMID]
5. Gaffney, H., Ttofi, M. M., & Farrington, D. P. Evaluating the effectiveness of school-bullying prevention programs: An updated meta-analytical review. Aggress Violent Behav. 2019;45: 111-33. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2018.07.001 [DOI:10.1016/j.avb.2018.07.001]
6. Rashidi J, Khodadadi J, Rezaei M. Effectiveness of communicative skills training with vicarious learning approach on high school students' aggression reduction. J Health Breeze. 2017;5(2): 26-32. [Persian]. https://jfh.sari.iau.ir/article_654094.html
7. Ferrández-Antón T, Ferreira-Padilla G, del Pino Casado R, Ferrández-Antón P, Baleriola-Júlvez J, Martínez-Riera J. Communication skills training in undergraduate nursing programs in Spain. Nurse Educ Practice.2020;42: 102653. doi:10.1016/j.nepr.2019.102653 [DOI:10.1016/j.nepr.2019.102653] [PMID]
8. Shen MJ, Manna R, Banerjee SC, Nelson CJ, Alexander K, Alici Y, Gangai N, Parker PA, Korc-Grodzicki B. Incorporating shared decision making into communication with older adults with cancer and their caregivers: Development and evaluation of a geriatric shared decision-making communication skills training module. Patient Educ Couns. 2020;103(11): 2328-34. [DOI:10.1016/j.pec.2020.04.032] [PMID] [PMCID]
9. Shao Y.N, Sun H.M, Huang J.W, Li M.L, Huang R.R, Li N. Simulation based empathy training improves the communication skills of neonatal nurses. Clin Simul Nurs. 2018;22: 32-42. [DOI:10.1016/j.ecns.2018.07.003]
10. Nakagawa S, Fischkoff K, Berlin A., Arnell T. D, Blinderman C. Communication skills training for general surgery residents. J Surg Educ. 2019;76(5):1223-30. doi:10.1016/j.jsurg.2019.04.001. [DOI:10.1016/j.jsurg.2019.04.001] [PMID]
11. Kerr D, Ostaszkiewicz J, Dunning T, Martin P. The effectiveness of training interventions on nurses' communication skills: A systematic review. Nurs Educ Today. 2020;89: 104405. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2020.104405. [DOI:10.1016/j.nedt.2020.104405] [PMID]
12. Lee M, Wang H, Chen C. Development and validation of the social adjustment scale for adolescents with Tourette syndrome in Taiwan. J Pediatr Nurs. 2020;51: e13-e20. doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2019.05.023. [DOI:10.1016/j.pedn.2019.05.023] [PMID]
13. Mittelmeier J, Rienties B, Rogaten J, Gunter A, Raghuram P. Internationalisation at a distance and at home: Academic and social adjustment in a South African distance learning context. Int J Intercult Relat. 2019;72: 1-12. doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2019.06.001 [DOI:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2019.06.001]
14. Srivastava Shankar P. Social adjustment problems of school going academic achievers. Int J Acad Res Dev. 2018;3(1):164-66. http://www.academicjournal.in/download/1225/2-6-364-520.pdf
15. Packiaselvi P, Malathi V.A. A Study on social adjustment among higher secondary school student and its impact on academic achievement in coimbatore district. Int J Res. 2015;5(6): 458-63. https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v5.i6.2017.2056 [DOI:10.5281/zenodo.822286]
16. Olivier E, Archambault I, Dupéré V. Boys' and girls' latent profiles of behavior and social adjustment in school: Longitudinal links with later student behavioral engagement and academic achievement? J Sch Psychol. 2018;69: 28-44. doi:10.1016/j.jsp.2018.05.006 [DOI:10.1016/j.jsp.2018.05.006] [PMID]
17. Liem G. Academic and social achievement goals: Their additive, interactive, and specialized effects on school functioning. Br J Edu Psychol. 2015;86(1): 37-56. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12085 [DOI:10.1111/bjep.12085.] [PMID]
18. Lee J. Social achievement goals and social adjustment in adolescence: A multiple-goal perspective. Japan Psychol Res. 2018;60(3): 121-33. doi:10.1111/jpr.12189 [DOI:10.1111/jpr.12189]
19. Shariat M.The effect of teaching socio-communicative skills on accountability and adaptation with school in students. Psychol Method Model. 2018;9(32): 203-20. https://dorl.net/dor/20.1001.1.22285516.1397.
20. Bavazin F, Sepahvandi M A, Ghazanfari F. The Effectiveness of Communication Skills Training on Academic Self-efficacy and Social Phobia in Adolescent Females with Depression. IJPN. 2018; 6 (3) :18-25. http://ijpn.ir/article-1-1044-fa.html
21. Rabani Z. (2019). The effectiveness of life skills training on individual-social adjustment and psychological capital in high school students. Iran J edu Soc. 2019;2(1): 54-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.29252/ijes.2.1.54 [DOI:10.29252/ijes.2.1.54]
22. Rezadad N, Aghamohammadian H, Karashki H. Moderating role of Islamic-Religious Orientation in the relationship between multidimensional responsibility and religious happiness of married people. Relig Commun. 2018;25(2): 70-110. [Persian]. http://ensani.ir/file/download/article/1563337848-9767-54-3.pdf
23. Ahmadi Beni Z, Amini A, Mehrabi T, Sharifpour Latani A, Ghasemi R. The Effect of Group Teaching Communication Skills with a Religious Approach on Social Adjustment in Female Students. IJPN. 2017; 4 (6) :1-7 http://ijpn.ir/article-1-480-fa.html [DOI:10.21859/ijpn-04064]
24. Olweus D. Annotation: Bulling at school: Basic facts and effects of a school based intervention program. J Child Psychol Pschiatr Allied Discip. 1994;35: 1171-90. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1995-11543-001 [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1994.tb01229.x] [PMID]
25. Sinha A.K, Singh R.P. Adjustment inventory for school students (AISS). National Psychological Corporation. India. https://www.studocu.com/in/document/jamia-millia-islamia/guidance-counseling/aiss-adjustment-inventory-of-school-students-is-a-intelligence-test/4779127
26. Pontzer D. A theoretical test of bullying behavior: Parenting, personality, and the bully/victim relationship. J fam violence. 2010;25(3): 259-73. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10896-009-9289-5 [DOI:10.1007/s10896-009-9289-5]
27. Zandavanian A, Daryapoor E, Jabarifar T. The relationship between school climate and bullying behavior in high school students of Yazd. J Edu Sci. 2014;20(2): 45-62. [Persian]. https://education.scu.ac.ir/article_10743.html?lang=en
28. Pourvali H, Soltan M. Determining the characteristics of psychometrics validity, validity, norms of Sinha and Singh's adolescent adjustment questionnaire. [Thesis]. Islamic Azad University, Kish. https://samanketab.roshdmag.ir/fa/article/24198/
29. Doodman P. The Relationship between Parenting Practices and Accountability of High School Students in Mehr Town, 2015-2016 (Iran) Parvaneh Doodman* . Qom Univ Med Sci J. 2018; 12 (4) :51-60 . http://journal.muq.ac.ir/article-1-1058-fa.html [DOI:10.29252/qums.12.4.51]
30. Afrasiyabi N, Fazlillahi S. The role of cultural intelligence and social capital in social responsibility of secretaries. 2019;27(12): 47-57. [Persian]. magiran.com/p1950880.
31. Atef vahid M, Nasr Esfahani M, Fatholahi P, Shojaei M. Standardization of the California Psychological Questionnaire. IJPCP. 2006;11(4): 371-8. [Persian]. http://ijpcp.iums.ac.ir/article-1-41-en.html
32. Ahmadi M, Hatami H, Ahadi H. A study of the effect of communication skills training on the female students' self-efficacy and achievement. 2013;16(4):105-118. J New Approach Educ Admin. [Persian]. https://dorl.net/dor/20.1001.1.20086369.1392.
33. Bahadori J, Habibi R. The effectiveness of communication skills training on academic motivation and academic adjustment of high school students. J Educ Sci. 2017;10(39): 151-73. [Persian]. https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=601986
34. Hejazi E, Babakhani N, Ahmadi N. Effectiveness of interpersonal communication skills training on aggression and impulsive behaviors among high school students. J Res Educ Sci. 2018;12(40): 25-38. https://dx.doi.org/10.22034/jiera.2018.69297
35. Karimi H, Hemati A, Haghighi M, Ahmadpanah M, Mohammad beige H. Comparing the effectiveness of group anger management and communication skills training on aggression of marijuana addicted prisoners. J Res Behav Sci. 2013;11(2): 129-138. https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=202127
36. Sabzi N, Foulad Chang M. The effectiveness of communication skills training on perceived competence and happiness of male students in the sixth grade of elementary school in Shiraz. Knowledge Res Applied Psychol. 2019;19(4): 114-23. https://dx.doi.org/10.30486/jsrp.2018.545643

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.