logo
Volume 11, Issue 1 (2022)                   J Police Med 2022, 11(1) | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Mohammadyari S. Assessing the Energy Balance and Nutritional Needs (Macronutrients, Vitamins, Minerals) in Military Students. J Police Med 2022; 11 (1) : e20
URL: http://jpmed.ir/article-1-1075-en.html
Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Imam Ali (AS) Officer University, Tehran, Iran , mohammadyari.s@gmail.com
English Extended Abstract:   (2393 Views)
Introduction
... [1-4]. Lack of adequate nutrients may cause muscle and bone mass erosion as well as increased risk of fatigue, injury and disease [5]. In a study conducted on athletic students of Zahedan Medical University, it was found that 43.3% of people lack energy, and 6.7% lack daily protein intake [6]. Also, in the results of evaluating the nutritional status of students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, it has been shown that the average intake of macronutrients in male and female students is proportional to the recommended amount, but in the case of micronutrients, the average intake of vitamins B13, B6, B2, A, folacin, C and the nutrients of calcium, magnesium, and zinc in both sexes are less than the recommended amount [7]. All members of society, especially the armed forces due to stressful job tasks, should follow a proper diet that has proportionate percentages of macronutrients and micronutrients [8]. Sali et al. have examined the nutritional status of navy units [9]. The results show that the militaries in the field of nutrient intake, especially in the consumption of dairy products, vegetables, fruits, protein sources, omega 3, and sources of calcium and energy intake, need the necessary interventions to increase access and consumption of these items [9]. Klesges et al. with examining the nutritional status of 32,000 US military personnel, found that 51.7% of participants consume less than one unit of dairy products per day and only 17.9% of people consume 3 units or more of dairy products per day [10]. Also, Swain et al. in their study of soldiers showed that the consumption of milk and dairy products in soldiers is lower than in other people [11].
Aim(s)
In the present study, the weekly diet of military students was examined in terms of the content and presence of macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) and compared with their nutritional and physical needs.
Research Society, Place, and Time
The present study is a descriptive survey that was done in the field in 2020. The statistical population was students of a military university in Tehran with an age range of 19-24 years.
Used Devices & Materials
To collect the studied data, the Frequency Food Questionnaire, which has a 24-hour food recall, and also the physical activity registration questionnaire was used. Also, nutritional and physical needs, including the amounts of macronutrients, micronutrients, and calories, were determined by Food Processor N4 software according to anthropometric characteristics, existing standards, and the amount of physical, military, and sports activity of students. ... [12, 13]. The validity and reliability of the Food Frequency Questionnaire in Iran have also been reviewed and confirmed as the study of Bashir Mousavi et al. in which the validity and reliability of this questionnaire was reported as 0.86 [14]. After a public call at the university, the condition for participating in the project was mentioned. First, during a coordination session, the research objectives were identified for the volunteer subjects, and physical measurements including age, height, and weight were recorded. Each student was asked to carefully complete the forms according to the explanations provided by the researcher and the instructions provided to them. The questionnaires were then distributed among them for three days.
Statistical Analysis
To determine the normality of data distribution after data collection, the Shapiro-Wilk test was used. Also, to analyze the data t-test was used using SPSS 20 software with a significance level of p <0.05.
Finding by Text
The results of the present study showed that the mean age, height, weight, and body mass index of the participants were respectively 21.36±8.2 years, 169.64±45.10 cm, 73.34±74.6 kg, and 37.2 Kg/m2. The results of the t-test showed that the amounts of calories, energy expenditure, macronutrients, vitamins (A, D, E, B12, and C), and calcium, magnesium, and zinc were significantly different from the existing standard (p<0.05). The results obtained to compare the amount of calories received with the amount of energy expenditure required for daily physical activity based on existing standards showed that this amount was about 12% less than the estimated amount for military students (p=0.001) (Table 1). Comparing the amount of macronutrients received by the military students with the amount of energy expenditure required for daily physical activity according to the existing standards showed that the amounts of carbohydrates, fats, sodium, and vitamin K received by the samples were higher than required, while the amount of protein intake was less than the estimated need for students of the military university and was significantly different from the existing standard (p=0.001). Also, the amounts of vitamin A, D, B12, E, C, calcium, magnesium, and zinc received by students were less than the existing standards and the amounts needed to provide the necessary micronutrients for proper activities, and were significantly different from the existing standard (001/0=p) (Table 1).
Main Comparison to the Similar Studies
... [15]. A study by Lutz et al. on the nutritional status of the US military has shown that macronutrient intake is optimal (except carbohydrates) [16]. This study is inconsistent with the present study. One of the reasons for this difference is the different study populations. This is because the present study examines the nutritional status of military students, while Lutz et al. studied military personnel. On the other hand, both communities have intense training activities. Carbohydrates stored in muscle and glucose in the blood are the main source of energy for very intense workouts and provide energy in the first minutes of training when there is not enough oxygen for aerobic metabolism [17]. ... [18-21]. Rostami et al. have studied the diet and satisfaction of military personnel in different areas, the results of which have reported deficiencies of vitamins A, D, B5, biotin, folic acid, and B12 in different military areas [22]. Sandstead has shown a lack of vitamins in the US military [23]. The study by Lutz et al. also showed a deficiency of micronutrients, including vitamins, in the diet of military personnel [16]. All of these studies are consistent with the present study. The only difference between the present study and the mentioned research was the recording of students' diet according to their activities, which had not been done in those studies [24]. ... [25-28]. Other findings of the present study include the lack of calcium, magnesium, and zinc intake in the samples compared to the existing standards. This finding is consistent with the study of Frank and Carty [29]. ... [30]. Without essential minerals, the delicate balance between catabolism and anabolism will be upset. Also, minerals are considered constituents of hormones [15, 31]. ... [32].
Limitations & Suggestions
To reach a general conclusion and taking into account limiting factors including the study of nutrition-related factors such as race, culture as well as anthropometric factors (body fat percentage, lean body mass), blood factors (growth factors), and environmental factors (cold or tropical), it is suggested that in future studies, a comprehensive study be conducted on military students measuring all the mentioned limitations.
Conclusions
The amounts of calories, macronutrients (proteins), vitamins (A, D, E, B12, and C), and also the amount of calcium, magnesium, and zinc intake in the students of the military university is less than the standard amount. However, they get more carbohydrates, sodium and fat rather than the standard.
Clinical & Practical Tips in Police Medicine
Due to the lack of calories, macronutrients (proteins), vitamins, calcium, magnesium, and zinc, compared to the existing standards for physical activity, it seems that to protect the country, the health of the military should be an important program and their food diet should be modified according to the standards.
Acknowledgments
We are very grateful to all the subjects participating in the present study.
Conflict of Interest
The authors state that there is no conflict of interest in the present study.
Funding Sources
The present study had no financial support.
Tables & Charts
Table 1) T-test results for the studied variables
Variable Received amount Available standard Dispute Meaningful
Energy expenditure (kcal per day) 2568 2658 -378 0.000
Energy intake (kcal per day) 2946 2658
Great nutrients (Grams / kg body weight per day) carbohydrate 8.6 7 +1.6 0.001
Fat 1.7 1.2 +0.5 0.001
Protein 0.8 1.1 -0.3 0.001
Vitamins (Mg per day) Vitamin A 728 900 -172 0.001
Vitamin E 8.96 15 -6.04 0.001
Vitamin B1 1.14 1.2 -0.06 0.000
Vitamin B6 1.18 1.3 -0.12 0.001
Folate 387 400 -23 0.001
Vitamin B12 1.25 2.4 -1.5 0.001
Vitamin C 73 90 -17 0.000
Vitamin D 3.8 5 -1.2 0.001
Vitamin K 132 120 +12 0.001
Minerals (Mg per day) Sodium 1728 1500 +228 0.000
potassium 4600 4700 -100 0.001
Calcium 728 1000 -372 0.000
Iron 7.45 8 -0.15 0.001
Phosphorus 678 700 -22 0.001
zinc 8.8 11 -3.2 0.001
Magnesium 349 420 -71 0.001
Copper 868 900 -32 0.001

 
Article number: e20
Full-Text [PDF 546 kb]   (1830 Downloads) |   |   English Extended Abstract (HTML)  (237 Views)  
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Police Health
Received: 2022/01/24 | Accepted: 2022/04/12 | Published: 2022/04/30

References
1. Theuri S. Barasi's human nutrition: A health perspective. J Nutr Edu Behav. 2017;49(4):361. [DOI:10.1016/j.jneb.2017.01.005]
2. Redondo-Flórez L, Fernández-Lucas J,. Clemente-Suárez V.J. Cultural differences in stress-related psychological, nutrition, physical activity and oral health factors of professors. Nutrients. 2020;12(12): 3644. [DOI:10.3390/nu12123644] [PMID] [PMCID]
3. Gavrilova N, Chernopolskaya N, Rebezov M, Schetinina E, Suyazova I, Safronov S.et al. Development of specialized food products for nutrition of sportmen. J Crit Res. 2020;7(4):233-6. http://doi.10.31838/jcr.07.04.43 [DOI:10.31838/jcr.07.04.43]
4. Betts A, Gonzalez T, Burke L, Close G, Garthe I, James L, Jeukendrup A et al. Text expanding on the checklist for proper reporting of evidence in sport and exercise nutrition trials. Int J Nutr Exerc Metab. 2020;30(1):2-13. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0326. [DOI:10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0326] [PMID]
5. Han C, Miller M, Yaxley A, Baldwin C, Woodman R, Sharma Y. Effectiveness of combined exercise and nutrition interventions in prefrail or frail older hospitalised patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ open. 2020;10(12):1-13. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/10/12/e040146 [DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-040146] [PMID] [PMCID]
6. Shariati M, Kaffashi A, Ghalehbandi M, Fateh A, Ebadi M. Mental health in medical students of the Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS). Payesh.2002;1(3):29-37. [Persian]. https://www.sid.ir/en/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=45356
7. Dolatkhah N, Aghamohammadi D, Farshbaf-Khalili A, Hajifaraji m, Hashemian M, Smaeili S. Nutrition knowledge and attitude in medical students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2017-2018. BMC Research Notes. 2019;12(757):1-6. [Persian]. DOI: 10.1186/s13104-019-4788-9 [DOI:10.1186/s13104-019-4788-9] [PMID] [PMCID]
8. Hutchinson W, Greene P, Hansen S. L. Evaluating active duty risk-taking: military home, education, activity, drugs, sex, suicide, and safety method. Mil Med. 2008;173(12):1164-7. doi: 10.7205/milmed.173.12.1164. [DOI:10.7205/MILMED.173.12.1164] [PMID]
9. Sali S, Esfahani A, Nobakht M, Enayati H, Farajzadeh M, Babaei M. Nutritional status in some Iranian naval units. J Mil Med. 2020;22(8):810-17. [Persian]. DOI: 10.30491/JMM.22.8.810
10. Klesges R, Clayton K, Ward K, Kaufman M, Haddock C.K, Talcott, Lando H A. Predictors of milk consumption in a population of 17-to 35-year-old military personnel. J Am Diet Assoc. 1999;99(7):821-6. [DOI:10.1016/S0002-8223(99)00195-9]
11. Swain H, Toth M, Consolazio C, Fitzpatrick W, Allen D, et al. Food consumption of soldiers in a subarctic climate (Fort Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, 1947-1948) One Figure. J Nutr. 1949;38(1):63-72. [DOI:10.1093/jn/38.1.63] [PMID]
12. Esfahani F. H, Asghari G, Mirmiran P, Azizi F. Reproducibility and relative validity of food group intake in a food frequency questionnaire developed for the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. J Epidemiol.2010;20(2):150-8. DOI: 10.2188/jea.je20090083 [Persian] [DOI:10.2188/jea.JE20090083] [PMID] [PMCID]
13. Siostrom M, Ainswoth B, Bauman A, Bull F, Hamilton C. Guidelines for data processing and analysis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)-short and long forms [Internet]. 2005. https://www.researchgate.net/file.PostFileLoader.html?id=5641f4c36143250eac8b45b7&assetKey=AS%3A294237418606593%401447163075131
14. BashiriMoosavi F, FARMANBAR R, TAGHDISI M, ATRKAR Z. Level of physical activity among girl high school students in Tarom county and relevant factors. Iran J Health. 2015;3(2):133-40. [Persian]. https://journal.ihepsa.ir/article-1-175-en.html
15. Castellini G, Sauro C, Ravaladi C, Rotella C, Faravelli C, Ricca V. Diagnostic crossover and outcome predictors in eating disorders according to DSM-IV and DSM-V proposed criteria: a 6-year follow-up study. Psychosom Med. 2011;73(3):270-9. https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e31820a1838 [DOI:10.1097/psy.0b013e31820a1838] [PMID]
16. Lutz L, Gaffney-Stomberg E, Karl J, Hughes J, Guerriere K, Mcclung J. Dietary intake in relation to military dietary reference values during army basic combat training; a multi-center, cross-sectional study. Mil Med. 2019;184(3-4):e223-e230. [DOI:10.1093/milmed/usy153] [PMID]
17. Al-Shawaf L. The evolutionary psychology of hunger. Appetite. 2016;105:591-5. [DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2016.06.021] [PMID]
18. Rouzitalab T,pourghassem B, Amirsasan R, Asghari M, Naeimi A, Sanoobar M. The relationship of disordered eating attitudes with body composition and anthropometric indices in physical education students. Iran Red Crescent Med J.2015;17(11):e20727. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4698139/ [DOI:10.5812/ircmj.20727] [PMID] [PMCID]
19. Baum A. Eating disorders in sports: a view contemplating the male athlete.2006;36(1):1-6. [DOI:10.2165/00007256-200636010-00001] [PMID]
20. Holway F, Spriet L. Sport-specific nutrition: practical strategies for team sports. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(1):115-25. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2011.605459. [DOI:10.1080/02640414.2011.605459] [PMID]
21. Riebe D, Franklin B, Thompson D, Garber E, Whitfield G, Magal M et al. Updating ACSM's recommendations for exercise preparticipation health screening. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 2015;47(11):2473-9. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000664 [DOI:10.1249/mss.0000000000000664] [PMID]
22. Rostami H, Parastouei K, Samadi M. Assessment of dietary menu and staff satisfaction with it in selected military areas of the country. J Mil Med.2021;23(1):58-68. [Persian]. DOI: 10.30491 /JMM.23.1.58
23. Sandstead H. Origins of the Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense, and a brief note concerning its demise. J Nutr. 2005;135(5):1257-62. [DOI:10.1093/jn/135.5.1257] [PMID]
24. Gibson J, Stuart-Hill L, Martin S, Gaul C. Nutrition status of junior elite Canadian female soccer athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2011;21(6):507-14. [DOI:10.1123/ijsnem.21.6.507] [PMID]
25. Daneshvar P, Hariri M, Ghiasvand R, Askari GH, Darvishi L, Shokri N et al. Dietary behaviors and nutritional assessment of young male isfahani wrestlers. Int J prev med. 2013;4(1):48-52. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3665025/
26. Oladunni M, Sanusi R. Nutritional status and dietary pattern of male athletes in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria. Niger J Physiol Sci.2013;28(2):165-71. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24937392/
27. Martínez Reñón C, Collado P. An assessment of the nutritional intake of soccer referees. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12(1):1-7. http:/.doi.org/10.1186/s12970-015-0068-9 [DOI:10.1186/s12970-015-0068-9] [PMID] [PMCID]
28. Alonso‐Pedrero L, Bes‐Rastrollo M, Marti A. Effects of antidepressant and antipsychotic use on weight gain: a systematic review. Obes Rev. 2019;20(12):1680-90. [DOI:10.1111/obr.12934] [PMID]
29. Frank LL, McCarthy MS. Telehealth coaching: impact on dietary and physical activity contributions to bone health during a military deployment. Mil Med. 2016;181(suppl_5):191-8. doi:10.7205/MILMED - D -15 -00159. [DOI:10.7205/MILMED-D-15-00159] [PMID]
30. Andrews T, Lukaszewski A, Simmons Z, Bleske-Rechek A. Cue-based estimates of reproductive value explain women's body attractiveness. Evol Human Behav. 2017;38(4):461-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2017.04.002]
31. Fairburn G, Cooper Z. Eating disorders, DSM-5 and clinical reality. Br J psychiatry. 2011;198(1):8-10. [DOI:10.1192/bjp.bp.110.083881] [PMID] [PMCID]
32. Galanti G, Stefani L, Scacciati I, Mascherini G,Buti G, Maffulli N. Eating and nutrition habits in young competitive athletes: a comparison between soccer players and cyclists. Transl Med UniSa. 2014;11:44-7. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25674549/

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.