Volume 11, Issue 1 (2022)                   J Police Med 2022, 11(1) | Back to browse issues page

Ethics code: IR.GUMS.REC.1398.517

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1- Guilan Road Trauma Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
2- Department of Psychology, Farhangian University, Tehran, Iran
3- Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
4- Neuroscience Research Center, Faculty of Medical, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran , n_khodadady@yahoo.com
English Extended Abstract:   (1796 Views)
Due to the unsafe design of this type of vehicle, motorcyclists die approximately 28 times more often than car occupants [1]. The increasing trend of motorcycle accidents has been emphasized in several studies [1-3]. A significant number of motorcyclists do not follow traffic rules. Wearing a helmet is one of the most important rules [4]. Enforcing wearing helmet legislation has increased helmet use [5] and prevented serious motorcyclist injuries [6]. After canceling the mandatory wearing of helmets in some countries, the death rate of these users has increased by 25-28% [7, 8]. It has been reported that the use of helmets in Iran among motorcyclists is about 30% and that of passengers is 10% which indicates the low use of helmets [9]. The use of standard helmets has significantly prevented the fractures of the middle face of Iranians [10]. Of course, the lack of seriousness of the police and regulatory bodies aggravates the disobedience of this group [11]. Few studies have shown that the police avoid fining these motorcyclists due to reasons such as lack of motivation and work pressure, and recommend solutions such as increasing the number of cameras in cities, automatic identification of motorcycles, helmets, and license plates [12].
The purpose of this study was to explain the proposed solutions to solve the problem of implementing wearing helmet legislation from the perspective of regulatory bodies and motorcyclists.
This qualitative study is of the contractual content analysis type.
This study was conducted by the method of Graham and Lundman (2004) [13] in Rasht, Iran in 2021. The participants were from Gilan, Iran, and had at least one year of work experience with motorcycle or at least three years of motorcycle riding experience.
To identify the employees of the regulatory bodies, the method of brainstorming and fishbone diagrams were used. The rest of the participants were selected by snowball method. The selection of the samples was done by the principle of maximum diversity and the participants were selected from different ages, sex, education, job, and work experience categories to provide a diverse range of experiences. Sampling continued until information saturation, i.e. no formation of classes and sub-classes and new information.
 The interviews were conducted by an interviewer experienced in qualitative research. The time and place of the interview were chosen by the participants. In-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted with an interview guide. To facilitate communication, it first started with demographic questions, then the main question titled "What are the effective ways to enforce wearing helmet legislation among motorcyclists?" was raised and then participants were asked about their experiences of the solutions, ways of better implementation of wearing helmet legislation, and probing questions to clarify more details. The duration of the interview was between 45 and 60 minutes, and a second interview was conducted with three people to clarify ambiguous points.
This study was conducted after obtaining the code of ethics from the Research Vice-Chancellor of Gilan, IranUniversity of Medical Sciences (IR.GUMS.REC.1398.517).
The process of data analysis was based on the method of Graham and colleagues in 2004, according to which these steps were carried out: implementing the interviews after reviewing them several times to find a correct understanding, extracting meaningful units, classifying compact units, and choosing a suitable label for them, sorting sub-categories, and choosing a suitable title that can cover the resulting categories [13]. Guba and Lincoln's four evaluative criteria were also used to strengthen the results of the qualitative part [14].
Saturation was achieved in the sample of 17, but the sampling was completed with 20 participants. There were 9 participants from regulatory bodies, 4 university faculty members, 3 traffic policemen, and 4 motorcyclists. All of them were male and the rest of their demographic characteristics are given in the table (Table 1). Solutions for implementing the wearing helmet legislation in four categories named; hard, correction, support, and soft solutions were revealed in 14 subclasses and 55 codes as described in Table 2.
The results of this study were included in four categories: the use of hard, corrective, support, and soft solutions. The first category was hard solutions. The participants believed that fines, strictures, and determination to enforce them by the regulatory authorities have a great impact on the enforcement of the helmet legislation. In a similar study, helmet use by motorcyclists was significantly associated with police stations at intersections, and motorcyclists who crossed police-monitored intersections were more likely to wear helmets [15]. Even those participants who believed in the effectiveness of education, mentioned education first and then strictness next to it. This can be done by various methods, including the adoption of new laws, and strict enforcement of the law with higher fines [16]. Therefore, wearing helmet legislation for motorcyclists can be enforced by using emphatic strategies [15, 17]. The second class extracted was corrective solutions. Similarly, some studies have recommended the adoption of new laws for motorcyclists and the modification of previous laws [16, 18], and broader legislation is recommended in addition to changing existing laws to improve helmet use [19]. There is a need to reform driver's license processes, because having a driver's license is the most important factor that affects the driver's attitude and makes them comply with the rules of wearing a helmet [20]. Therefore, like a study in Nepal, the evidence shows that it is necessary to reform, organize and redefine motorcycling laws in Iran [17]. The solutions of the next level were law enforcement and motorcyclist support. These results reveal that the problems of law enforcement, including not having enough employees, high volume of work, and low living conditions should be considered. The need to support the police by people and organizations has been emphasized before [21]. There is ample evidence that helmet laws are effective in increasing helmet use and reducing injuries [22, 23]. In a previous study, the experiences of medical workers in Bandar Abbas, Iran, showed that in the implementation of wearing helmet legislation, the individual, social, family, economic and cultural factors of the motorcyclist should be taken into account [24]. Therefore, by eliminating the deficiencies in the human and financial resources of the regulatory bodies and the proper management of existing resources, some of the problems of the traffic police and driving can be solved and death and serious injuries to motorcyclists can be prevented. Increasing the number of cameras in cities that increase the ability to identify motorcyclists without helmets is also recommended. This task is done using vehicle identification, helmet identification, and automatic license plate recognition [12]. Finally, soft solutions were the fourth category. A study in Iran has shown that motorcyclists who do not have driver's license used drugs significantly more and had personality disorders and depression [25]. In a study in Malaysia, a significant percentage of motorcyclists did not wear helmets properly, and most of the child passengers did not wear helmets. Therefore, despite the legal approval of wearing a helmet for motorcyclists and passengers, there is a lack of public awareness of the safety and benefits of using a helmet and a lack of adequate and appropriate implementation [2]. In this regard, the importance of education along with the application of the law, which is one of the results of this class, becomes clear. According to the previous emphasis, a driver must have a certified skill license, and the knowledge of the motorcyclist and the severity of the law are introduced as the two main influencing factors [26]. In a grounded theory study reported in Kerman, Iran, policies and intervention programs to control injuries and promote safety among motorcyclists should focus on socio-cultural barriers to helmet use in general and changing motorcyclists' attitudes toward mortality in particular [27 ].
One of the limitations of the present study is the limitations related to qualitative studies, which quantitative data such as the frequency of experiences cannot be obtained and presented.
It is suggested to extract the experiences of the heads and elders of the country's traffic in this matter through interviews for further studies.
There are four categories of solutions for implementing wearing helmet legislation from the point of view of policymakers, police, and motorcyclists. The use of hard solutions such as the diligence and seriousness of the regulatory bodies in implementing the law on wearing helmets and corrective solutions such as drafting new laws and amending existing laws, support solutions such as supporting the police and motorcyclists, and finally, soft solutions such as education and culturalizing and the use of mass media are effective in implementing these laws.
The police and employees who are responsible for enforcing the wearing helmet legislation on motorcyclists should try to use all kinds of legal solutions. However, besides these golden solutions, the use of gentle and soft solutions such as education and culturalizing should be considered. In this regard, the duties of policymakers are to formulate new laws and amend existing laws, to support the police and motorcyclists.
We would like to thank Gilan University of Medical Sciences, which provided the financial costs of this research project. We are also grateful to all participants in this research, including motorcyclists and regulatory bodies.
The authors state that there is no conflict of interest in the present study.
This article was completed with the financial support of Gilan University of Medical Sciences.

Table 1) Demographic characteristics of the participants
Number Age Responsibility work experience Number Age Responsibility work experience
1 39 cyclist 16 11 45 Members of the traffic accidents working group 16
2 50 Members of the traffic accidents working group 25 12 49 Police 28
3 35 cyclist 13 13 40 Members of the traffic accidents working group 15
4 32 cyclist 6 14 41 cyclist 18
5 49 Police 30 15 42 Members of the traffic accidents working group 20
6 52 Members of the traffic accidents working group 20 16 43 Academic Board 10
7 38 Members of the traffic accidents working group 10 17 50 Academic Board 25
8 36 Academic Board 4 18 68 Supporters of Gilan Road Safety 10
9 49 Police 30 19 53 Academic Board 29
10 44 traffic police training 19 20 42 Members of the traffic accidents working group 16

Table 2) Solutions to implement wearing helmet law
floors under the floors Codes
1- Hard solutions A- Emphasis on fines Fine is the only option
Fine is a good method
Increasing the number of fines
Extension of fines
B- Seriousness in applying the law The need for serious determination by the police
Playing the correct role in regulatory areas
Strictness of the police
The police overseeing the implementation of the law
The strictness of the police in cities and villages
Increasing police presence on dangerous roads
2- Corrective solutions A- Improving processes related to certification The strict application of certification
The necessity of passing the training process to get a certificate
The necessity of passing the training course before buying a motorcycle
The need to have a license when buying a motorcycle
B- Solving the challenge of identifying the motorcyclist Motorcycle identification and number plate
Numbering of motorcycles with helmets
Buying and selling through documents
C- Legalizing motorcycling Guaranteeing the enforcement of the law
Making available the possibility of implementing a law
Equal enforcement of the law for all
Redefining motorcycle fines and violations
Enforce all motorcycle laws
Notification of traffic hours
Redefining the application of the law after the incident
The necessity of accountability of all ministries
d- Organizing the methods of applying the law Do not use pressure
Written notice for the first time
Avoid punitive action
3- Support for law enforcement and motorcyclists A- Provision of sufficient staff Eliminate the lack of police license plates
Eliminate the shortage of resident police
Solving the severe shortage of soldiers
B- Provision of technical facilities Parking lot for transporting and the parking impounded motorcycles
Production and import of safe motorcycles
C- Supporting law enforcement Providing financial incentives for police subsistence allowance
Giving an incentive for a fine
D- Support the motorcyclist Enforcement of the rules without causing dissatisfaction to the motorcyclist
Attention to the economic needs of motorcyclists
Seeing the financial ability of the motorcyclist
Not imposing the price of the helmet on the motorcyclist
E-Providing access conditions for motorcyclists Providing access systems
Facilities for buying helmets
Giving helmets
4- Soft solutions A-Using education along with law enforcement Education and then law enforcement
Law enforcement guarantor training
Teaching and applying the law together
B- Effectiveness of media, patterns and behaviors Advertising influence
The effect of movies and teasers
The effect of wearing police hats
The influence of parents, academics and educated people and the British
C- Cultivation Raising the culture of motorcyclists
Cultivation replaces lack of power
Cultivation along with law enforcement
Need more time and work to accommodate
Difficulty working with motorcyclists because of the type of culture
The necessity of commitment in motorcyclist

Article number: e26
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Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Traffic Medicine
Received: 2022/05/21 | Accepted: 2022/07/20 | Published: 2022/08/3

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